The origin of the microcredits was a thing of women, according to a recent study

  • The women of Ancient Rome created loans of small amounts of money to people without resources, according to a recent study.
  • These managed to circumvent the legal norms that excluded them from banking-related activities.
  • There is evidence of this type of credits in different epigraphic sources.
  • The interests reached 6.25% of the loan and as collateral was requested, for example to women, coats or pending.

The concept of microcredit as a loan of small amounts of money to people without resources to develop labor projects was created by women in Ancient Rome, according to a study conducted by the Roman Law professor at the Jaume I University (UJI) of Castellón, Carmen Lazarus.

These loans were made legally and avoid the need to be authorized by the tutor According to a statement from the UJI, the study shows how women managed to circumvent the legal rules that excluded them from activities related to banking.

Money

 

For this, and according to Lázaro, they used “loans of small amounts of money made by and between women and guaranteed by contracts in which low-value personal items were given as collateral “.

In addition, the study recognizes the existence of this system of microcredits through different sources, mainly epigraphic, such as the inscriptions found in the House of Roman Granite, in Pompeii. These inscriptions include legal business such as the one carried out by the lender Faustilla, “who grants loans to other women with 6.25% interest, remaining as a guarantee of a return in the form of outstanding collateral or a coat, ” said Lázaro.

The researcher pointed out that these loans could be made legally and avoid the need to be authorized by the guardian “since the money is a fungible and therefore not subject to formality for its transmission to provide legal effects.” The studies carried out by Carmen Lázaro also include other evidence of loan business among women, such as those found in Murécine’s Pompeian tablets or in some literary sources- made my day seasonsubmit.com/forex-trading-made-easy-with-this-advice Seasonsubmit.

Despite the prohibition to participate in banking activities, women were active and passive subjects of obligations linked to pecuniary loans “Despite the prohibition to participate in banking and exchange activities, women were active and passive subjects of linked obligations to pecuniary loans and that they operated in the field of banking and credit, “said Lázaro.

The legal limitations with which women were in Ancient Rome were, as the researcher has pointed out, the ones that led to consolidating this system that, without opposing the legal system, found the mechanism for women to carry out their transactions.

In this sense, Lazaro recalled that the legislation prevented women from having access to certain contractual figures that would limit the performance of certain legal businesses “unless their guardian intervened”.

The researcher concludes that it is “a business that has the characteristics of today known as microcredit and that allowed women to enjoy a certain independence of movement”.

Lazaro also highlighted that the activity of women in the field of business in Ancient Rome “went beyond the activity of loans”, and that there is evidence of women “dedicated to the world of commerce and business, which they directed shipping companies, textile manufacturing companies, footwear, and hotels “.

At the Crédit Municipal de Paris, we come to deposit his jewels and his misery

Due to the economic crisis, the number of clients of the former Mont de Piété is up by 30%

Well put, the air dignified and resigned, he stands there, right as an I, in the big crowded room of the Municipal Credit of Paris. Waiting for his turn. In his clenched hands, a small paper bearing the number 424. “Why am I here?” He repeated, detaching the syllables one by one, his gaze fixed on an imaginary horizon as if to avoid yours. the ring left to me by my father on the death of my mother, a gold signet ring that will allow me to borrow 130 euros to pay my monthly consumer credit. ”

Then, after a heavy silence: “I have just declared myself in personal bankruptcy at the Banque de France. This started with difficulties to pay for a dental prosthesis. My retirement was not enough. I took credits to repay my debt, then credits to repay my credits, I ended up selling everything I had, I still have a few books left, and this signet ring … ”

Like 423 others before him, this Monday, December 7, Denis M., 68 years old, former computer engineer, came to seek an emergency solution to his money problems, with the oldest financial institution in Paris. The old Mont de Piété was created in 1777 to protect the French from usurers. It has never worked so well since the crisis. Between 500 and 600 customers flock there every day, 30% more than in 2008, of all nationalities, of all ages. And now, of all social categories; middle classes and bourgeois families, tenants and owners.

Some have been ousted from their bank after too many unpaid bills. Others dare not pass the door. Most are over-indebted. They allowed themselves to be asphyxiated slowly by revolving credits quickly subscribed in stores or on the Internet, with unscrupulous “credit merchants”.

The crisis, with its share of unemployment and precariousness, loved ones to help, sharpens their difficulties. “I bring jewels for 750 euros.I will pay back as soon as I touch the Assedic at the beginning of January”, assures Mélissa L., a vivacious young woman of 24, “Guadeloupean of metropolis” , came with her girlfriend thanks to “word of mouth ” “It’s just a passing,” she continues with a smile, to pay my rent (200 euros, in Sarcelles) and Christmas gifts for the family ” . Did she contact a bank before the Municipal Credit? “Oh no, I’m suspicious, and I could not pay every month, it’s simple and not very expensive, you pay a little interest and you pay back when you can.”

The “bad debt”

Beside her, a pretty young blonde woman sketches an embarrassed smile. The anonymity guaranteed to her in exchange for her testimony reassures her. Alice S., 31, said softly, “It’s not easy to be here, I’ve come to bring some jewelry that I’d like to pick up later, because of financial difficulties in general.” Local taxes have increased I have people to repay in my family and consumer credits I earn 1,000 euros per month, my husband 1,500. That’s right, especially with a child … ” The respectful welcome of Municipal credit and the discretion it provides him go well: “Here, we owe nothing to anyone, or almost. The banks are not very honest when they charge 8.50 euros for a letter telling you that you are in the open. ”

In the big room that continues to fill as the afternoon progresses, the tongues finally untie. Modesty, shame sometimes “to have arrived there …” , a recurring expression, is dissipated in front of the desire to tell, to share his burden the time of a meeting, even fleeting. If the customers arrive with knotted stomachs, they leave visibly relieved, their well secured, within the pocket tickets that will allow them to hold a month or two, more if the object has value.

“Here, you have your daily dose of strong emotions,” says Céline Burel, head of the head office agency, in charge of social loans proposed in addition to the traditional pawnbroking activity, some stories are hard. responds with a human treatment adapted to each case. There are solutions to relieve the lives of people. Credit restructuring is on the rise: “For a year and a half, people with more loans – five, six – have been able to pay rent, nursery and canteen bills, family loans. at ten years fixed rate, we help them manage their budget … ”

In fact, for Jean-Pierre Rochette, CEO of CMP Banque, and his deputy Emmanuel Bouriez, the social evil of the time is called “bad debt”. “We are paying all these years of easy credit, they say in concert. The crisis only reveals these problems and aggravates the difficulties. The relationship to money can count as much as the loss of income.”

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